history of darjeeling

So he stressed the need to procure the place for. The tea leaves are processed as black tea, though some estates have expanded their product offerings to include leaves suitable for making green, white and oolong teas. Originally, Darjeeling was a part of the Kingdom of Sikkim. Thus, Darjeeling was gifted to the Britishers. The period 1982 to 1988 saw the people of Darjeeling in agitation for the formation of a separate state. Accordingly in 1828 Captain Lloyd was deputed to settle the dispute. In 2000, the Tea Board created new licensing requirements for Darjeeling tea exporters, including product authentication and a prohibition on blending, which allowed them to issue certificates of origin. In the meantime trouble arose with the adjoining state of Bhutan. The Chinese variety (sinensis) was planted in Saharanpur B… They are harvested in October-November and provides a herbaceous and soft muscatel flavour but with a fuller body and darker colour than previous flushes, and is compared favorably with Nepali teas. Environmental factors combined with a history of organized cultivation and processing has created a terroir unique to Darjeeling tea. The Nepalese marched till the east of Sikkim in 1780 as far as Tista River. The West Bengal government is also involved in providing regulatory supervision of numerous aspects of estate operations, including land use and labour agreements. He devoted himself to the task of developing the station, attracting immigrants to cultivate the mountain slopes and stimulating trade and commerce. They jointly negotiate together with the various unions and the government so that workers across numerous tea estates receive the same compensation. Time and again the little kingdom had to defend itself against attacks from Nepal. Matters related to Board of Administration, GTA. Apart from these estates, a relatively small amount of tea is produced in farm cooperatives but they lack processing and quality control infrastructure. It was a part of the kingdom of Sikkim and a native tribe named ‘Lepcha’ were the original inhabitants of the place, before being invaded by the Gorkhas of Nepal in the 1790s. Sikkim was a protectorate first of British India and after its independence in 1947 of India. These first leaves following the winter dormancy are the most tender leaves the plant will produce and result in a tea that has a gentle, very light colour and aroma, and a mild astringency (or briskness). Sikkim undertook to complete the remaining part. The history of Darjeeling has intimate relationship, nang ra masukojasto, to the history of Sikkim, Nepal, Bhutan, and the East India Company and thereby to Britain. A land-mark year in the History of Darjeeling was 1835, but it would be appropriate to trace its History before that. This treaty was of great advantage to Darjeeling as it ended the annoyances caused to its inhabitants and secured full freedom for commerce. Release of Grants in Aid to GTA for State Development Schemes and Administrative Expenditure. “I’d been to many tea places around the world, but nowhere struck me or intrigued me like Darjeeling,” he says, later explaining the draw is an ineffable combination of its isolation, topographic beauty, history, and the tradition and care of its tea production. Camellia sinensis was first planted in the Darjeeling region in the mid-1800s. 1835 the area of Darjeeling - that had been part of Sikkim until then - was annexed by British India. Issues related to the transferred subjects to the GTA. © Darjeeling District Administration , Developed and hosted by National Informatics Centre,Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology, Government of India, Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology. In pursuit of differentiating Darjeeling tea, the Darjeeling Planter's Association had been established, in 1983, to promote the product in other countries and a logo was copyrighted, consisting of the side profile of a woman holding two leaves and a bud and registered it in various countries and then, once it was eligible, internationally in the Madrid system. Resident in Nepal was transferred to Darjeeling as Superintendent. Accordingly, GTA Sabha was constituted on 02.08.2012 with forty-five elected members and five members nominated by the Governor. The sorting of the dried product according to tea leaf grading is completed and shipped to Kolkata for auctioning, though many estates sell privately under contracts. Some estates create green or white teas from these as they demand less withering and no oxidation, however, when completed as black tea this flush is often sold below the cost of production for use in blending and domestic consumption. Tea pluckers in Darjeeling Darjeeling: The Darling of Indian Teas Typically “Darjeeling tea” refers to a black tea that is light to medium-bodied with fruity and floral notes, and perhaps a touch of briskness. The autumn flush produces teas similar, but more muted, to the second flush. history of loreto The Loreto Sisters came to India in 1841 at the invitation of the then Archbishop of Calcutta, Dr. Carew. Both the newly discovered assamica variety and the sinensis variety were planted but the sloped drainage, cool winters and cloud cover favoured sinensis. granted the Raja an allowance of Rs.3,000/- per annum as compensation. Their Reports proved the feasibility of establishing a sanatorium in Darjeeling. Darjeeling: The Colorful History and Precarious Fate of the World’s Greatest Tea was an absolutely fabulous read. From its commanding height, the whole of Sikkim and the neighbourhood could be observed and protected. Release of RIDF loans for rural infrastructure development of areas under GTA. It will be appropriate to start from Kharsang for it was here that Maharajah Thodup Namgyal and Maharani Yeshay Dolma were imprisoned. Prior to its acquisition by the East India Co. in 1835, Darjeeling formed a part of Sikkim and for a brief period of Nepal. The first flush consists of the first few leaves grown after the plant's winter dormancy and produce a light floral tea with a slight astringency; this flush is also suitable for producing a white tea. The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, also known as the DHR or the Toy Train, is a 2 ft (610 mm) gauge railway that runs between New Jalpaiguri and Darjeeling in the Indian state of West Bengal.Built between 1879 and 1881, it is about 88 km (55 mi) long. Camellia sinensis was first planted in the Darjeeling area in 1841 by Archibald Campbell who was working for the East India Company in this jungle-covered, sparsely-populated area to develop a hill station for use by the British stationed in Kolkata. Lord Bentinck promptly deputed Capt. According to Sir Joseph Hooker ‘every obstacle was thrown in the way of a good understanding between Sikkim and the British Government’. We learn that Lloyd visited ‘the old Gorkha Station called Darjeeling’, for six days in Feb. 1829 and ‘was immediately struck with it being well adapted for the purpose of a sanatorium’ (he was apprehensive of the winters suggested Ging). The place was later invaded by the Gorkha army in the 1790s. Nepal and Bhutan, alarmed at British presence in the Himalaya accused Sikkim of selling out to the foreigners. Whilst the Darjeeling area was originally occupied by the Lepcha, it was not particularly developed as an area until the introduction of tea plants (from China) by the British in the early 19th century. In 1835 the nucleus of the present district of British Sikkim or Darjeeling was created by a cession of a portion of the hills by the raja of Sikkim to the British as a sanatorium. Darjeeling teas, especially the first flush, tend to be withered longer than other black teas; a hard wither can reduce a leaf's water content by more than half, affecting polyphenol oxidase activity and leaving a more green appearance. As per Memorandum of Agreement signed between Government of India, Government of West Bengal and Gorkha Janmukti Morcha, Gorkha Territorial Act XX of 2011, having been assented to by the President of India was first published in Kolkata Gazette, Extraordinary of the 12th March 2012. These annexations by the Gurkhas, however, brought them into conflict with the British. Despite a limited exemption for the tea industry the 1973 Foreign Exchange Regulations Act the new foreign ownership limitations resulted in Indian nationals becoming majority owners of the Darjeeling tea industry. The persistent rain also results in less complete withering and oxidization during the processing stage. With more area being opened for tea crops at the expense of natural area and the introduction of pesticides and fertilizers, yields increased from 7.8 to 10 million kilograms between 1950 and 1960, though this came at the cost of increased soil instability. Darjeeling District today is ample proof of this. They have developed a unified ethnic identity and advocated for independence from West Bengal. The Act has provided for the establishment of Gorkhaland Territorial Administration for the region comprising the three subdivisions Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Kurseong and some Mouzas of Siliguri subdivision in the District of Darjeeling. miles. The Chinese variety (sinensis) was planted in Saharanpur Botanical Gardens and propagated in other Himalayan gardens where Campbell had acquired seeds from Kumaun via Nathaniel Wallich. Darjeeling Tea History Tea is an evergreen plant of the Camellia family and is known as Camellia Sinensis. The word Darjeeling is derived from a Lepcha word ‘ Dorjeling ’ meaning the Land of Thunderbolt. The forty-day riot led to the formation of Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council, a body that was given semi-autonomous powers to govern the Darjeeling district. Since 2004, the term Darjeeling tea has been a registered geographical indication referring to products produced on certain estates within Darjeeling and Kalimpong. Raids from Sikkim however continued. The advantage that the Britishers would have, as it would serve as a strategically important position in commanding entrance to Nepal and Bhutan. Inspite of all these, most of the tract that now comprise Darjeeling consisted of uninhabited impenetrable virgin forests. Franklin Prestage, an agent of the Eastern Bengal Railway, approached the government with a proposal to lay a steam tramway from Siliguri to Darjeeling. However neither the history of Sikkim, nor the history of Nepal furnish any account of its early history. The history of Darjeeling tea is nearly 150 years old when in 1841 a civil surgeon, Dr.Campbell planted some tea seeds in his garden experimentally in a place called Beechwood at Darjeeling at an altitude of about 7000ft above sea level. [9][22] This also complicates wage negotiations as marginal increases are feared to come at the expense of a loss of social services. DEED – ‘The Governor General, having expressed his desire for possession of the Hill of Darjeeling on account of its cool climate, for the purpose of enabling the servants of his Government, suffering from sickness, to avail themselves of its advantages,the Sikkim puttee Raja, out of friendship for the said Governor General, hereby present Darjeeling to the East India Co. that is, all the land South of the Great Rangeet River, East of the Balason, Kahail and Little Rangeet rivers and West of the Rungno and Mahanadi Rivers’. The objective is to establish an autonomous self-governing body to administer the region so that the socio-economic, infrastructural, educational, cultural and linguistic development is expedited and the ethnic identity of Gorkhas established, thereby achieving all-round development of the people of the region. "Quote" - The British connection with Darjeeling dates from 1816, when, at the close of the war with Nepal, the British made over to the Sikkim raja the tarai tract, which had been wrested from him and annexed by Nepal. Being on the sides of the hills, at high elevations where cool dry air interacts with warm moist air, there can be persistent fog or cloud cover during the growing months. When Nepal yielded a bulk of its territory to the British Raj, they handed it over to the rajah of Sikkim on the basis of the treaty of Titlya. It is oft In 1706 the king lost Kalimpong to the Bhutanese. [20] Some of the notable tea estates include: The Government of West Bengal owns the land on which the estates are located and administer 30 to 90 year leases under the West Bengal Estates Acquisition Act to companies operating the estates. The Camellia sinensis seeds originally planted came from China but new plantings come predominately from saplings taken from a few cultivars, such as Bannockburn 157, Phoobsering 312 and Ambari Vegetative 2, which have been specifically adapted for Darjeeling. The first pluckings in Spring, generally March into May, are referred to as the first flush. By 1840 a road was built from Pankhabari and staging bungalows built at Pankbabari and Mahaldiram. Delimitation of GTA Sabha Constituencies. Audit of Accounts of erstwhile DGHC and present GTA. In the meantime, the British were engaged in preventing the Gorkhas from overrunning the whole of the northern frontier. Knowing a brief account of the creation of such a precious treasure facilitates greater understanding and appreciation. not crush, tear, curl) Darjeeling teas are generally prepared in the same manner as other black teas. Apart from managing the various key departments, it plays a pivotal role and acts as an intermediate between the council and the Government. In 1988, Makaibari became the first tea estate in India to attain organic certification, followed by Tumsong, and the first to gain biodynamic certification, in 1993, followed by Ambootia. History of Darjeeling and the Sikkim Himalaya. It is noted for its tea industry, its views of Kangchenjunga, the world's third-highest mountain, and the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. A land-mark year in the History of Darjeeling was 1835, but it would be appropriate to trace its History before that. Tea connoisseurs recommend a water temperature ranging between 90 °C (194 °F) to 95 °C (203 °F) in a single infusion of 3 to 4 minutes, whereas first flushes, like other early spring teas such as Jin Jun Mei tea, use water of slightly lower temperature at 85 to 90°C and an infusion time of 2 to 3 minutes. Between Siliguri and Darjeeling, Tonga services ran on a cart road – the present-day Hill Cart Road. Setting up of different Boards/ Committees for GTA areas. The Raja appeared before the Governor General for compensation. Success of assamica at the nearby Dooars-Terai tea gardens led to infrastructure investments that would be extend up the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region, allowing more machinery and supplies to reach the tea gardens. It was entirely surrounded by the Raja’s dominions – entry and exit being restricted to a narrow path, which included the sites of Darjeeling and Kurseong towns and touched the plains near Pankhabari. As the Soviet Union replaced the United Kingdom as India's largest tea customers, Darjeeling gardens were supplemented with assamica plantings to accommodate their preference for that variety.[5]. This amount was raised to Rs.6,000/- in 1846. The Bhutanese were constantly raiding and plundering the areas of Darjeeling. The Archaeological Survey of India has come up with a publication on two European cemeteries in Darjeeling that throws light not only on the rich colonial history … With the intervention of the British, the Gorkhas were prevented from turning the whole of Sikkim into a province of Nepal and Sikkim (including the present District of Darjeeling) was retained as a buffer state between Nepal, Bhutan and Tibet. In 1860 the British occupied Rinchingpong. There was also rumors of a planned attack on Darjeeling. After the formation of The Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council Act, the role of district administration has changed from being a manager to a key player. These first two flushes are the most sought after by tea connoisseurs. General Lloyd was accordingly deputed to start negotiations with the Raja of Sikkim for the transfer of Darjeeling in return for an equivalent in money or land. N.B. [3] Darjeeling's population had grown from less than a 100 in the 1830s to 95,000 people with 100 tea gardens in 1885, predominately Indian Gorkha and Lepcha migrants from Nepal and Sikkim, as the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, the use of steamships and the Suez Canal reduced shipping times. The Anglo-Nepal war broke out in 1814. Sikkim was a Buddhist kingdom under the Namgyal-Chogyal dynasty from 1642 to 1975. [16], With the exception of the first flush, orthodox (ie. While the original plantings succeeded, Campbell moved to Lebong where he and several other residents planted a new batch, in 1846, of both varieties (sinensis and assamica). Unlike when you see a retro laundromat façade and then walk inside to discover a hipster coffee shop with $15 avocado toast, Jeff Koehler’s “Darjeeling: A History of the World’s Greatest Tea” is not an ironically-titled wine book in disguise. Being on steep slopes, the soil is well-drained and deep enough for long root systems, necessary for anchoring soil on slopes. The history of Darjeeling has intimate relationship, nang ra masukojasto, to the history of Sikkim, Nepal, Bhutan, and the East India Company and thereby to Britain. The historical backdrop of Darjeeling gardens goes back to 1847 when the then government chose to set our Darjeeling Tea nurseries for experimentation and development. "[12] The tea gardens are located on the hillsides of the Eastern Himalaya, between 600 and 2,000 metres in elevation. The history of Darjeeling district is linked to that of the East India Company, Sikkim, Nepal and Bhutan.. Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Until the beginning of the 18th century, the area between the present borders of Sikkim and the plains of Bengal, including Darjeeling and Kalimpong, belonged to the kings of Sikkim. The name ‘Darjeeling’came from the Tibetan words,’dorje’meaning thunderbolt (originally the scepter of Indra) and ‘ling’a place or land, hence ‘the land of the thunderbolt’. Siliguri, at the base of the Himalayas, was connected with Calcutta (now Kolkata) by a metre gauge railway in 1878. Herbert to examine and map the tract of land along with Grant with special reference to its strategic and communication benefits. The place was mostly inhabited by the Lepchas and the Kirati people. The history of Darjeeling dates to the era when, the present area of Darjeeling was a buffer state between Nepal and Bhutan. are still handled by the district administration. However, the low wages contribute to a high rate of absenteeism of workers seeking higher paying work elsewhere. A summer resort for British officials to escape the heat in the plains. 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