how to delineate a catchment area

the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin. Normally, when delineating catchments, the closing points are known, for example you have a sampling point, discharge point, or a hydrological station and the you want to define the area draining to that point. Draw a circle at the outlet or downstream point of the wetland in question (the wetland is the hatched area shown in Figure E-4 to the right) 2. If you have LiDAR data for the forested area and are able to strip out the tree heights you could create a terrain model of the ground surface and use that to delineate the catchment. With the flow accumulation raster, the stream network can also be derived but this is topic for another tutorial. Nice write up. Now we can establish a point along the high value accumulation cells for which we will delineate the contributing/catchment area. 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Normally, when delineating catchments, the closing points are known, for example you have a sampling point, discharge point, or a hydrological station and the you want to define the area draining to that point. Several tools are available to achieve this purpose, even tools not directly related to GIS like Matlab or Python scripts, but definitely GIS applications are the most widely used in these kind of tasks. In the previous figure, the result is shown for a specified coordinate within my study area, the delineated catchment appears in blue. In order to obtain the delineation of a catchment draining towards a particular point, the tool r.water.outlet from GRASS GIS is used. Different intermediate results were generated during the model run and finally catchment area map has been generated and basic parameters were also defined. Sinks are areas of internal drainage, that is, areas that do not drain out anywhere. With a naked eye, the following DEM does not seem to have holes/gaps were information could be missing or be erroneous: Yet, sometimes due to a number of factors, DEM includes artifacts and errors which can give us troubles when delineating the catchments. Used a land-based survey to delineate three specific catchment areas (between 18 and 180 hectares) and then added storm sewers to analyze water flow. 29017 MALAGA, Insurgentes Sur 1898, Piso 14, Florida, Álvaro Obregón, Ciudad de México (CDMX), c.p. Define a correct name and path and execute the tool. This parameter can be tricky to define and it depends on several factors like the desired minimum size of our catchment, the DEM’s pixel size and so on. The purpose of this project is to protect estuaries and wetlands by developing a methodology to identify them and delineate their topographic boundaries using ground base remote sensing and geographic information systems. It would be great if there was a way to edit the model to include these. This study advanced this method by using mobile phone data to delineate urban park catchment area. To determine the contributing area, a raster representing the direction of flow must first be created with the Flow Direction tool. Placing new catch basins to delineate contributing catchments (ie. Get … That’s true, these tools work quite well in big areas but in smaller areas they often present problems. Create a Stage Volume Curve . Our multidisciplinary team with extensive experience in the sector allows us to offer the best training in geomatic-related matters. Derive the flow direction and flow accumulation rasters: Define the outlet and delineate watershed: With the described steps the delineation of a catchment using a DEM and coordinate can be relatively easy, using the GRASS GIS tools included in the QGIS standard pack. | All Rights Reserved |, Using ESRI products, Carto, Mapbox and Google Maps, Route Analysis – finding the shortest path, How to determine a contributing area/catchment above a predefined location using ArcGIS, Automatically merge raster files using PyQGIS, Downloading and Preprocessing Satellite Imagery using QGIS and Semi-Automatic Classification Plugin, QNEAT3 – QGIS Network Analysis Capabilities. We will consider this point as a new hydroelectric power plant. In order to obtain the watershed delineation we will need to follow some predefined steps and obtain the Flow direction and the Flow accumulation and obtain the for each cell in the DEM the number of cells that are flowing into them. When is it appropriate to delineate a watershed? Tutorial: Automate Stream & Catchment Delineation using the Graphical Modeller Data Tailor made trainings and advice . Create a new shapefile and define a new point vector layer. In this exercise we will see how to delineate the boundary of a catchment/contributing area using a Digital Elevation Model and a given point (a specific point for which we want to find the contributing/catchment area). The location data of over 1 million anonymous mobile phone users was collected in 2011. Just keep in mind that you need both the Drainage direction and flow accumulation rasters in order to continue to the next step. It is mostly because wrong outlet points, in this case you should shift the points until the lower point is reached and then the algorithm can correctly delineate it. In this example, I will directly digitize the points on ArcMap. We will start with a DEM for a region in Europe downloaded directly from the ASTER-DEM website it must be pointed, that prior to the utilization of this information, it must be reprojected into UTM coordinates, since the ASTER products are delivered using a geographic coordinates. cell_area: Compute (projected) area of cells. The drainage direction should look like this: While the ‘Number of cells that drain through each cell’ or flow accumulation raster will look initially totally black: But after modifying the visualization properties, readjusting the real minimum and maximum values to be displayed, the appearance will change to: As you can notice, in the flow accumulation raster, some patterns are now noticeable, in summary this raster represents the number of cells or pixels which, because of their location, drain towards each pixel. … In this very short and basic tutorial I will show you how to delineate a catchment using as main income a DEM from ASTER and a point feature, also indirectly other products like the accumulation flow raster and the drainage direction raster will be derived, yet these are not the main points of this exercise. Here is how you have to set it up (note the Initiation thresholdGreater than10.000.000). You can try with values, for example 1000 and the run the tool, if it crashes try with another number. After demarcation of the catchment boundary in topo map, trace the delineated area in transparent graph paper. For this reason, it is necessary, first to ‘fill’ the DEM in order to avoid later errors. Use the … The catchment area (also known as flow accumulation), can be used to set a threshold for channel initiation. But in this case, since we do not want to derive the basins using this tool, we need to find a value in order to run the tool. The use of this tool is very straightforward and once the Drainage raster and the coordinates are indicated, the tool can be directly run. If cells do not drain off the edge of the grid, they may attempt to drain into each other, which will lead to an endless processing loop. The GIS offers a lot of flexible tools in order to derive these products, using as main input a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of a study area. Ask a how to question, Google Earth Pro (Desktop) Upvote (0) Subscribe Unsubscribe. To use this tool, you require the drainage direction raster and the coordinates of the closing point: NOTE: The coordinates must be expressed in the same units as the map. The final product should be 2 rasters: the flow accumulation and flow direction, which after the execution of the tool will be automatically loaded into the map view. Bhupinder Singh Mann recuses himself from four-member SC panel on farm laws; Ahead of covid vaccine rollout, Centre postpones polio immunisation drive ; Rahul Gandhi attends Jallikattu; 5 detained for raising … With the filled DEM, we can now derive the flow direction and accumulation rasters using the GRASS GIS tool r.watershed tool. Tutorial: Delineate multiple subcatchments Data 7. Top News Right Now. A drainage basin refers to the whole drainage area of a river up to its confluence e.g. I have previously managed to figure this much out and it is very useful for delineating general drainage areas. Examples include deriving boundaries based purely on political, hydrological, or ecological criteria or by using a combination of these and other criteria. Open ArcMap and create a new, blank map document. delineate a project study area. Given this we would like to know which is the catchment area the new hydroelectric power plant will collect the water. Experience in using different geospatial software products (ENVI, ArcGIS, QGIS), data collection, spatial analysis, manipulation of geographical information, map creation. Usually before using it, it is required to vectorize it (in order to calculate the area/perimeter for example), which can be easily done using the r.to.vect tool from GRASS GIS. In any case a lot information is available for the tool if further details are required. A watershed is the upslope area that contributes flow to a common outlet as concentrated drainage. Before subscribing check our data protection policy |, Copyright 2018 - TYC GIS Soluciones S.L. Preferably the points we wish to use as input for the delimitation of a contributing area should be located along the stream definition (drainage network) determined by the flow accumulation raster output. Very often the r.water.outlet tool might present errors when running it. With the catchment delineated, as you can realize, it is a raster layer. To do this, the accumulation raster can be used. Use the steps below to set up your map document and establish the working directory you will be using throughout the watershed delineation process. A new method is also proposed for the delineation of subcatchments and thus the catchment area. Step 2: Flow direction – this tool will calculate the flow direction of each cell in the raster. Open the Terrain Models Manager (View > Surface Views > Terrain Models). The Flow Accumulation output raster will allow the delineation of the draining area to any specified point. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. ArcGIS can obtain the total area of flowing into this specific point, also called pour point. The health of the upper regions in a watershed affects the quality of water downstream. As you can realize, this tool presents a lot of inputs and outputs, but we will focus only in a couple of them. In this way seems logical to think that the pixels located in the lower parts (valley bottoms) will show the highest values of pixels flowing into them if compared with the pixels of the upper parts where the accumulation values will be low. 1. We can summarize the steps for catchment delineation as follows: These steps are a generic scheme, which I had used it does not necessarily mean that it is correct a-priori, and It will depend in a number of external factors. It will be default save as a SAGA Grid format (.srgd). Thanks! Delineation is based entirely on topographic and river network information. The obtained results will necessarily have to be verified, using for that other sources of cartography since it is based in a model and sometimes due to errors in the DEM the delineation process might deliver wrong results or artifacts. Being not part of this tutorial a deep explanation about the particular meaning and interpretation of these rasters I will stop here, and continue to the next steps. Very often catchment delineations are required for several processes in hydrological analysis. If you have several points to delineate, once you derived the drainage direction raster, you can apply the r.water.outlet tool in batch mode, which can allow you to do several runs in one single step, saving some precious time. The method is applied to the Chaudanne catchment, which belongs to the Yzeron … Fuencarral St. 158, Mezzanine, Office 16-17 28010 MADRID, Ave. Pintor Joaquín Sorolla 137, 1ºD P.C. tokubetsu-ku, the core of the capital of Japan. 3. delineate urban park catchment area. a. The reason that sinks need to be filled in is because a drainage network is built that finds the flow path of every cell, eventually off the edge of the grid. Source locations may be features, such as dams or stream gauges, for which you want to determine characteristics of the contributing area. I am asking how can someone delineate a catchment/watershed of an area? Yet, I will follow the described logic since I have experience following that order. The study area is the 23 special wards of Tokyo or tokubetsu-ku, the core of the capital of Japan. The rim of the bowl or the water- shed boundary is sometimes referred to as the ridgeline or watershed divide. The final results should look as follows. flow_distance: Compute flow distance to outlet. The output is … In this analysis, the pour point will be your stream gage, and you will delineate the watershed upstream of your stream gage. Lhomme et al. Edit the new point layer and start digitizing. You will then need to provide the locations you wish to determine the catchment area for. I have tried with better DEMs (smaller resolution) when available but it is more time consuming and frequently at that level of detail it is required to check with auxiliary material (photography or similar). We need to determine the point on the area that we want to delineate the contributing/catchment area. To determine the contributing area, a raster representing the direction of flow must first be created with the Flow Direction tool. ‘DAS’ is the Indonesian name for a catchment and Noelmina is the name of the catchment clipped in the example shown. Depends on the type of catchment and the scale of amount of water to be held. The mentioned procedure is a very basic approach, since several processes were not in deep described (for example the r.watershed tool products) since the objective of this exercise is to show the program capabilities and not to in detail describe the processes behind the algorithms. Step 4: As the flow accumulation grid was outputted we can determine the drainage network of the area and where the most of the water will be accumulated. contributing area for a particular control point or outlet • Used to define boundaries of the study area, and/or to divide the study area into sub-areas. In order to achieve this, the drainage routes were marked out in the GIS environment, and the DEM cells that contribute to each drainage route delineated in the same polygon as a sub-catchment. Community content may not be verified or up-to-date. As water falls onto the bowl’s rim, it either flows down the inside of the bowl or down the outside of the bowl. The correction is done in QGIS using the GRASS tool r.fill.dir which filters and generates a depressionless elevation raster with a given input DEM (GRASS GIS, 2016). The only required input is the DEM to be processed (Elevation) and the outputs are: the corrected DEM (Depressionless DEM) the flow direction raster (Flow direction) and the identified areas with problems (Problem areas), as we need only the corrected DEM, the other outputs can be unselected and the algorithm run. Moreover, they said, the map is made on a small scale of 1:25000 and to delineate the catchment area properly, a map on a larger scale of 1:5000 is required. As input (Elevation), we will use we will use the corrected DEM, then we will skip the parameters until the ‘Minimum size of exterior watershed basin’ which in order to run the tool it requires to be filled. We can manually digitize these points directly on ArcMap, or we can also use existing points if we have it. In this case I am using the reprojected information into UTM ellipsoid WGS84, zone 31 North. The objective of this step is to turn the DEM into a ‘hydrologically correct’ DEM which means that the sinks which can alter the water flow in our study area have been filled and hence the streams and other products will be correct or at least will behave logically according to hydrological rules, like water always flowing downstream and not disappearing into false sinks. Step 1: Fill sinks – this tool will fill the sinks in your DEM creating a depressionless DEM. area has little to no relief and resolution is not fine enough or proper care is not taken in terrain pre-processing. Step 3: Flow accumulation –  calculates for each cell in the DEM the number of cells that are flowing into them. 01030, Eusebio A. Morales St.– El Cangrejo PH Neo Plaza, Office 215. • Dividing sub-drainage areas to delineate catchment boundaries can be subjective and should consider grouping similar land use patterns, any differences in land ownership, future stormwater improvement plans, potential monitoring locations, or other relevant factors that would affect grouping or separating certain areas of your municipality. After running the algorithm, a new layer is created with the filled DEM which we will use in the following steps. accumulation: Flow direction to flow accumulation. cell_distances: Compute (projected) channel length within cells. Select Terrain Preprocessing | Catchment Grid Delineation Confirm that the input to the Flow Direction Grid and link Grid are " Fdr " and "Lnk" respectively. catchment: Delineate catchment from flow direction. Watersheds can be delineated from a DEM by computing the flow direction and using it in the Watershed tool. 2004 . The team based its final boundary on the integration of several important factors. I used the Channel Network tool to delineate the drainage network, using a Catchment area calculated using the D8 method, with a Filled DEM calculated with the Wang & Liu method. You can check this inquiring some values across the recently defined raster. By right clicking in on the new grid layer it is possible to save it. You will then need to provide the locations you wish to determine the catchment area for. extract_river_network: Extract river network at a given accumulation threshold. Deriving the flow direction and flow accumulation rasters. The … First, let’s create a new point feature. There are eight valid output directions. Automate Stream & Catchment Delineation using the Graphical Modeller . Coming next: Stream network delineation and the batch mode in QGIS. ArcGIS can obtain the total area of flowing into this specific point, also called pour point. Count the number of squares in the graph paper that the catchment has covered & keeping in mind of map scale, determine the value of catchment area. This tool allows the calculation of several parameters which in turn can be used to perform several other analyses, in our case we will use it only to derive the flow accumulation and direction rasters. This parameter determines the minimum size of a catchment in order to be identified by the algorithm, in other words it defines the minimum size of an individual basin to be considered as an individual entity, if it is too small, the basin will be merged with the contiguous basins, until the minimum size if completed. Attach the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) which will be used to determine the contributing catchment areas. Tutorial: Create a Stage Volume Curve ... Tutorial: Stream and Catchment Delineation using GRASS tools Data 10. Now we have prepared our catchment we can conduct some more further analysis. Imagine a watershed as an enormous bowl. The subcatchments are delineated using a combination of an object‐oriented approach in the urban zone and geographical information system–based terrain analysis with flow direction forcing in the rural zone. NOTE: for some reason, the flow direction generated with the r.fill.dir tool cannot be used in the following steps, for that reason the drainage direction raster must be generated using instead the r.watershed tool as described in the previous section. The catchment boundary to any required (usually gauged) point on the river network is defined by applying GIS tools to an appropriate digital elevation model. As result, the tool produces a raster containing all the pixels draining towards the indicated pixel (coordinates). This can be done using the Channel networkalgorithm. In green you can see the delineated catchment. Currently PhD Student - Remote Sensing and GIS applied in hydrology, BSc in Geography and MSc in Geomatics at "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University from Iasi, Romania. Depending on the size of your study area and pixel size, the execution of the tool will take more or less time, take that into account when using extensive DEMs. The limits that I have discovered are that this does not account for smaller drainage swales that may not be picked up in the DEM, culverts or subsurface drainage networks. Catch basin positions are not yet known) 1. Step 5: Watershed – Finally  we obtain the contributing area to a point using the Watershed tool. A watershed is an area of land containing common hydrologic features that eventually flow into a single larger body of water, such as a river, lake or ocean. Recommended Answer Recommended Answers (0) Most Relevant Answer Most Relevant Answers (0) All Replies (1) Diamond Product Expert Alchemist251. Details. In this study, ASTER DEM of 30 m resolution has been used to delineate the catchment area of a real system Kangsabati reservoir in ArcGIS 10.4. Then, the rest of parameters are left blank/default and we move to the outputs. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Important factors all the pixels draining towards a particular point, based on a digital elevation model park catchment (! Point will be your stream gage now we can establish a point using the Graphical Modeller results... ’ s true, these tools work quite how to delineate a catchment area in big areas but smaller... Piso 14, Florida, Álvaro Obregón, Ciudad de México ( CDMX ), c.p rest of parameters left... Save my name, email, and website in this analysis, the pour point based... Will use in the raster: Extract river network information projected ) channel within. With another number 1: fill sinks – this tool will calculate the flow accumulation ), c.p is!, hydrological, or ecological criteria or by using mobile phone users was in... Is created with the flow direction – this tool will fill the sinks in DEM. Map has been generated and basic parameters were also defined Álvaro Obregón, de! Directory you will then need to provide the locations you wish to determine the catchment area has. Realize, it is a raster containing all the pixels draining towards the indicated (! Is shown for a specified coordinate within my study area, the delineated in... In big areas but in smaller areas they often present problems raster containing all the pixels towards! Source locations may be features, such as dams or stream gauges, for which we will this. The health of the capital of Japan vector layer stream & catchment delineation using GRASS tools data 10 run... The rest of parameters are left blank/default and we move to the next time comment! Area is the 23 special wards of Tokyo or tokubetsu-ku, the result shown! Digital elevation model area map has been generated and basic parameters were defined. Delineation of the bowl or the water- shed boundary is sometimes referred as. Databutton to Add the DEM for your area of flowing into this specific point, the of. Network information ( CDMX ), c.p new shapefile and define a new method also. Derive the flow direction of flow must first be created with the filled which. De how to delineate a catchment area ( CDMX ), can be delineated from a DEM by computing the direction! Experience following that order are left blank/default and we move to the outputs the map > Terrain Models (. Or ecological criteria or by using mobile phone users was collected in 2011 demarcation of the area. This specific point, based on a digital elevation model quite well in big but... Raster layer depends on the new hydroelectric power plant a common outlet as drainage! Sorolla 137, 1ºD P.C or by using a combination of these and other.! Soluciones S.L further analysis new hydroelectric power plant sinks in your DEM creating a depressionless DEM the model and! The storm drainage system and calculated the change in flow path, overlaid the storm drainage system and the. Thus the catchment boundary in topo map, trace the delineated area in transparent graph paper but... A depressionless DEM how to delineate a catchment area keep in mind that you need both the drainage direction and flow accumulation output will. Set up your map document and establish the working directory you will be default save as a SAGA grid (. Email, and you will then need to provide the locations you wish to determine the contributing catchment.. Keep in mind that you need both the drainage direction and flow accumulation calculates... Will fill the sinks in your DEM creating a depressionless DEM format (.srgd.! Present problems the best training in geomatic-related matters and path and execute the tool, it... Define a new point feature or we can establish a point using the Graphical Modeller to as the ridgeline watershed. Extensive experience in the DEM the number of cells the delineated catchment appears in blue, Piso 14,,... Catchments ( ie the initiation thresholdGreater than10.000.000 ) have previously managed to this... To do this, the stream network can also be derived but this is topic for another tutorial delineated a! Email address to Subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email to! Areas but in smaller areas they often present problems best training in geomatic-related matters which will used! Of View political, hydrological, or we can establish a point along the value... Delineate contributing catchments ( ie name and path and execute the tool r.water.outlet from GRASS GIS used... & catchment delineation using the GRASS GIS is used new posts by email the area. Of the draining area to any specified point then, the rest of parameters left. The sinks in your DEM creating a depressionless DEM along the high accumulation! ’ s true, these tools work quite well in big areas but in smaller areas they often present.. It in the DEM for your area of interest to the outputs in transparent graph.. Not yet known ) 1 is not taken in Terrain pre-processing of your stream gage within study! The drainage direction and accumulation rasters using the reprojected information into UTM WGS84! Network can also be derived but this is topic for another tutorial need the... Boundary in topo map, trace the delineated catchment appears in blue step 1 fill. Up your map document: watershed – finally we obtain the contributing area any! Multidisciplinary team with extensive experience in the previous figure, the delineated area in transparent paper. Based on a digital elevation model best training in geomatic-related matters great if was. Drainage areas the accumulation raster, the rest of parameters are left blank/default and we move to whole. Trace the delineated area in transparent graph paper catch basin positions are not yet known ).... Points directly on ArcMap this inquiring some values across the recently defined raster document and establish the working directory will... Area map has been generated and basic parameters were also defined watershed – finally we obtain how to delineate a catchment area! This, the result is shown for a specified coordinate within my study,. Example 1000 and the batch mode in QGIS how to delineate a catchment area as a new layer is created with flow. Establish the working directory you will then need to determine the contributing area, the result is shown a... Coordinate within my study area, the stream network can also be derived but this topic... Google Earth Pro ( Desktop ) Upvote ( 0 ) Subscribe Unsubscribe want to determine the catchment map... Corrected the DEM, we can establish a point using the reprojected information into UTM ellipsoid WGS84 zone!, if it crashes try with values, for which we will use in the DEM, and you then! That ’ s create a new point vector layer (.srgd ) Sorolla 137, 1ºD P.C is based on...: flow accumulation raster, the rest of parameters are left blank/default and we move how to delineate a catchment area the next.... A digital elevation model how to delineate a catchment area tutorial to include these a combination of these and criteria. Information into UTM ellipsoid WGS84, zone 31 North area is the catchment area ( also as... The point on the type of catchment and the scale of amount of water downstream Cangrejo Neo! The storm drainage system and calculated the change in flow path Amaguchi al!... tutorial: create a new hydroelectric power plant another tutorial to a common outlet as drainage! A common outlet as concentrated drainage extensive experience in how to delineate a catchment area DEM for your area cells. Save my name, email, and website in this case I am using the watershed of! The upper regions in a watershed is the catchment area map has been generated and basic parameters were defined. The Graphical Modeller data Tailor made trainings and advice Florida, Álvaro Obregón, de! Just keep in mind that you need both the drainage direction and using it in the following steps hydroelectric. Also use existing points if we have corrected the DEM in order to obtain the total flowing! Or ecological criteria or by using mobile phone users was collected in 2011 new power... Can realize, it is a raster layer details are required for several in. Eusebio A. Morales St.– El Cangrejo PH Neo Plaza, Office 215 and! And calculated the change in flow path Amaguchi et al right clicking on! The water- shed boundary is sometimes referred to as the ridgeline or divide. Is … I am using the reprojected information into UTM ellipsoid WGS84, zone 31 North values point View... 29017 MALAGA, Insurgentes Sur 1898, Piso 14, Florida, Álvaro Obregón, Ciudad de México ( )! Using it in the raster: stream network delineation and the run the tool r.water.outlet from GRASS GIS used... I will directly digitize the points on ArcMap in topo map, the! The sinks in your DEM creating a depressionless DEM watershed upstream of your stream gage step 3 flow. Are flowing into this specific point, the pour point establish a how to delineate a catchment area the! The Graphical Modeller data Tailor made trainings and advice Ave. Pintor Joaquín Sorolla 137 1ºD... Placing new catch basins to delineate contributing catchments ( ie and basic parameters were also.... Modeller data Tailor made trainings and advice 31 North GRASS GIS is used Soluciones! Watershed – finally we obtain the contributing catchment areas will allow the delineation subcatchments... Are the inputs we need to determine the contributing catchment areas ( also as... The … this study advanced this method by using a combination of these other. Malaga, Insurgentes Sur 1898, Piso 14, Florida, Álvaro Obregón, Ciudad de México ( )...

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