• Enforce regular payment of wages, requirements that employers pay recruitment fees of migrant workers, and the rights of employees to retain possession of their own identity and financial documents. The government also permitted migrants to obtain 30-day and 90-day border passes to work in non-seasonal agricultural or manufacturing jobs, including within 10 developing special economic zones, but such temporary working arrangements did not provide workers access to social protections. The trafficking litigation unit of the Office of the Attorney General (OAG) did not find sufficient evidence of trafficking in approximately 18 percent of cases with arrested suspects referred to the unit by law enforcement in 2019, which was an increase compared to nine percent in 2018 and two percent in 2017. It is also a hotbed of human trafficking and abuse. In addition, while the electronic payment system increased the ability of labor inspectors to verify wage payments, unscrupulous employers continued to make regular electronic payments in their employees’ accounts to satisfy the legal requirement but made illegal withdrawals. Credible reports indicate some corrupt officials protect brothels, other commercial sex venues, factory owners, and fishing vessel owners from raids, inspections, and prosecutions and collude with traffickers. Besides this Act, there are several other laws which criminalise human trafficking activities and offences, including: • Labour Protection Act (2008) • Child Protection Act (2003) In addition, government shelters often lacked sufficient numbers of interpreters, which weakened their ability to provide adequate services to victims. Thus, they should change in their mindset, perception and efforts in order to go with the current situation and avoid their primitive ways of doing things because the world is technological and cooperation with the society is, It is imperative that the education ministry is aware of these situations, so that they can rectify the negative perception on sex into positive mainstream education. A. In addition, workers’ past negative interactions with authorities and a lack of availability of interpreters at some labor offices deterred migrant workers from reporting exploitation. The 610 sex and labor trafficking victims whom the Ministry of Social Development and Human Security (MSDHS) reported assisting in government and NGO shelters (401 in 2018), included 134 Thai and 476 foreign victims, and 170 victims of sex trafficking and 440 victims of labor trafficking. Global Citizen campaigns to end extreme poverty — which is usually a contributing factor as to why people seek to relocate. • Increase collaboration with local civil society organizations in migrant worker assistance centers, post-arrival centers, and government shelters, including in the provision of services to victims. The government did not report investigating illegal salary deductions and observers reported that while DLPW was responsible for monitoring for illegal deductions, DOE conducted labor inspections of recruitment agencies but did not frequently refer suspected cases of illegal deductions to DLPW. The government provided anti-trafficking training to its diplomatic personnel. IPL. Employers rarely provided workers a contract to keep or in their language, and research indicated migrant fishermen were less likely to have signed a contract in their own language than in previous years; contacts attributed this decrease to the government ceasing to proactively provide a standard contract that had been made available in multiple languages in previous years. MSDHS provided vocational training activities in shelters, and victims could earn a minor income from activities such as craft-making. The government permitted some victims to reside at and obtain services at three government-registered NGO shelters; although victims obtaining these services could still obtain compensation from the government’s anti-trafficking fund, the government did not provide these shelters with additional funding to support their operations. The government could only provide temporary assistance to potential victims for up to eight days, and formal identification by MDTs was necessary for victims to obtain a legal right to services. The office of the judiciary collaborated with UNODC and a university to provide training to criminal, civil, and labor court judges on trafficking laws and best practices for overseeing trafficking cases. Various waterways along with porous borders also facilitate trafficking. The decision by Thailand … Some are paid little or irregularly, incur debts from brokers and employers, work as much as 18 to 20 hours per day for seven days a week, and without adequate food, water or medical supplies. For example, in December 2019, courts convicted and sentenced a reporter to two years’ imprisonment for criminal libel for making comments on social media related to a poultry farm that was previously ordered to compensate 1.7 million baht ($57,100) to 14 Burmese workers who were subjected to conditions indicative of forced labor; since 2016, this company has pursued more than 36 complaints against rights advocates. There are steps the Government of Thailand can take to end human trafficking in Thailand. However, the government also reported identifying an additional 950 individuals as trafficking victims subjected to “extortion,” many of whom were likely irregular Burmese or Rohingya migrants transiting Thailand seeking employment in third countries, particularly Malaysia. Thai law permitted foreign trafficking victims and witnesses to stay and work in Thailand for up to two years upon the completion of legal proceedings against their traffickers; however, the government did not report if any victims received this benefit during the reporting period. On the other hand the government itself can reduce human trafficking by bringing in severe rules and regulations and bringing out laws that can remove human trafficking completely. In addition, the Courts of Justice organized a roundtable meeting with police, prosecutors, and NGOs to discuss laws and procedures relevant to trafficking cases. MSDHS trafficking shelters did not allow victims—including adults—to leave without permission, which was often denied; only victims who received permission to work outside shelters could leave the shelter on a regular basis for work. Instances of human trafficking, smuggling, abduction, and extortion of migrants occur as migrants move between Thailand and neighboring countries. According to the Global Slavery Index, about one in 113 among its 69 million population was prey to human trafficking as of 2018. As established above, sex workers are prone to experience violence. Jonathan Head has spent six months investigating the trafficking of humans in Thailand. Various research published in 2019 and 2020 found that between 14 and 18 percent of migrant fishermen were exploited in forced labor in the Thai fishing industry, indicating traffickers exploited thousands of workers on fishing vessels. In addition, the government did not consistently provide repatriation assistance to victims who declined to participate in law enforcement investigations. There are steps the Government of Thailand can take to end human trafficking in Thailand. In addition, observers reported labor officials interviewed workers in the presence of their employers, brokers, and armed police at post-arrival centers, which may have deterred workers from reporting exploitation. The decree prohibited employers from deducting more than 10 percent of workers’ monthly salaries for personal expenses and the retention of travel or other personal documents; the law prescribed penalties of fines ranging from 10,000-100,000 baht ($340-$3,360) and up to six months’ imprisonment for employers who violated these rules. In addition, MOL organized numerous trainings for labor officers and inspectors on identifying trafficking. • Foster an environment conducive to victims and advocates reporting human trafficking crimes without fear of facing spurious retributive charges pursued by employers, including by utilizing new amendments to dismiss cases filed with dishonest intent or to intimidate defendants. Some victims continued to report reluctance to participate in prosecutions due to fear of detention and extended shelter stays, fears of experiencing retaliation from traffickers, and language barriers. Improve the capacity of law enforcement to proactively prosecute and convict labor traffickers and identify labor trafficking victims. MDTs were also sometimes reluctant to make identifications unless a case was likely to result in a successful prosecution. How has Thailand let this happen? Members of ethnic minorities, highland persons, and stateless persons in Thailand have experienced instances of abuse indicative of trafficking. The government increased efforts to prevent trafficking. • Increase efforts to ensure employers provide workers copies of contracts in a language they understand. Thailand is recognized as a key destination for human trafficking in the Mekong region, in addition to being a source and transit country for forced labour and sex trafficking. The government maintained law enforcement efforts. Courts sentenced approximately 74 percent of convicted traffickers to five or more years of imprisonment. The government investigated more suspected cases of labor trafficking compared to the previous reporting period, sentenced convicted traffickers to significant terms of imprisonment, increased the amount of compensation provided to victims through the anti-trafficking fund, and successfully provided restitution to victims of trafficking for the first time during the reporting period. Sadly, human trafficking has been happening for way too long all around the world, but I am going to focus ni Thailand. The government made efforts to reduce the demand for commercial sex acts, including by displaying a video in four languages discouraging child sex tourism in Thai airports and on Thai airline flights. MSDHS operated 76 short-stay shelters and nine long-term regional trafficking shelters, including four dedicated to adult male victims and families, four for female victims, and one for male child victims. To be critical and conscientious The majority of those rescued were women, most of them trafficked for forced labor. Although government regulations permitted exploited migrant workers to change employers, some policies restricted their ability to do so in practice. Local observers reported the government often deployed female officials to conduct identification interviews of female victims. MSDHS reported it assigned social workers to maintain contact with Thai victims for at least one year after their reintegration. Provincial labor offices required workers recruited under MOUs to present many documents that workers often could not provide without NGO or brokers’ assistance in order to approve job changes. Thailand's reliance on migrant workers and reported abuses in several export-oriented industries has heightened international and domestic attention to trafficking … In April 2019, the government amended the 2008 anti-trafficking law to include a separate provision under Section 6/1, specifically addressing “forced labor or services,” which prescribed penalties of six months’ to four years’ imprisonment, a fine of 50,000 to 400,000 baht ($1,680 to $13,440) per victim, or both. Thailand should work as a community and develop moral obligations to prevent this crime against humanity. According to the Global Slavery Index, about one in 113 among its 69 million population was prey to human trafficking as of 2018. PIPO centers performed inspections to verify whether fishing vessels were operating legally and implemented a risk-based assessment system to identify target vessels for inspection. However, authorities made the provision of services contingent upon a victim’s willingness to participate in law enforcement investigations. The government reported investigating 76 potential cases of labor trafficking—including four cases involving the fishing sector—compared to 43 in 2018. Last night I bought my ticket to Charlotte! Through government-to-government formal migration channels, the government assisted 11,886 Thais to obtain employment abroad in 2019, including by providing job placement assistance. Victims should be given free medical assistance and therapy funded by the anti-human trafficking fundraisers and businesses should hire the victims as interns and help them set up a career to further support, We, the humans, should not be used as merchandise. THAIlAND HuMAN TRAFFICkING DATAsHEET ANTI-TRAFFICkING lAws & GuIDElINEs In June 2008, Thailand enacted the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act (B.E. The government demonstrated overall increasing efforts compared to the previous reporting period; therefore Thailand remained on Tier 2. Officials continued to conflate trafficking and smuggling during the reporting period, effective victim identification remained inadequate, and the government did not provide adequate psycho-social care to victims or provide victims residing in government shelters sufficient freedom of movement. Local observers reported the anti-trafficking division of RTP sometimes referred trafficking cases to inexperienced local agencies or did not properly manage the oversight of cases investigated by suspected complicit local police. PIPOs did not universally apply a standardized procedure for referring cases of fishermen who went missing at sea, including to identify indicators of trafficking on the vessels in which they went missing, and an increasing number of crewmembers went missing at sea during the reporting period. In 2019, the government reported investigating 288 potential trafficking cases (304 in 2018), initiating prosecutions of 386 suspected traffickers (438 in 2018), and convicting 304 traffickers (316 in 2018). The law protected victims from prosecution for unlawful acts their traffickers compelled them to commit; however, flaws in the government’s implementation of victim identification procedures increased the risk of authorities penalizing victims, including for prostitution and immigration violations. In 2019, the government allocated approximately 3.8 billion baht ($127.9 million) towards its prevention and suppression of trafficking budget, compared to approximately 3.64 billion ($122.3 million) allocated in 2018. The report rated Thailand “Tier 3” for human trafficking — the lowest rank among countries evaluated by the U.S. State Department. In January and March 2020, MSDHS hosted a forum with NGOs, government agencies, international organizations, and the private sector to discuss anti-trafficking efforts and encourage increased collaboration; the government collected recommendations from participants at the January forum and presented them to the anti-trafficking committee in March. In an attempt to increase victims’ willingness to participate as witnesses, Thai courts admitted advance and video testimony as evidence in trials; courts conducted 15 advanced hearings for 41 witnesses in 2019. The trial on July 19 in which Bangkok’s Criminal Court Division for Human Trafficking convicted 62 people on charges of human trafficking, including an army general, was Thailand… It involves coercion, deception and even violence, depriving victims of human rights. In addition, observers reported inspectors more frequently conducted interviews with victim-centered practices, and all PIPO centers had translators available for inspections. The Thai Internet Crimes Against Children Task Force (TICAC) investigated 26 cases of internet-facilitated child sex trafficking (19 in 2018). MDTs, which comprised government agencies and NGOs, utilized standard screening guidelines to formally identify victims and refer them to services. Observers reported some officials utilized practices during MDT victim interviews that hindered the ability of victims to recount their exploitation. Section 6 of the 2008 anti-trafficking law, as amended, criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking and prescribed penalties of four to 12 years’ imprisonment and a fine of 400,000 to 1.2 million baht ($13,440 to $40,310) for offenses involving an adult victim, and six to 20 years’ imprisonment and a fine of 600,000 to two million baht ($20,150 to $67,180) for those involving a child victim. Thailand's relative prosperity attracts migrants from neighboring countries who flee conditions of poverty and, in the case of Burma, military repression. Twenty-two arrested over Thailand trafficking as authorities continue to ignore official involvement in trade. Some trafficking victims in the fishing sector had difficulty returning home due to isolated workplaces, unpaid wages, and the lack of legitimate identity documents or safe means to travel. The 2016 Beggar Control Act provided for health and social services to individuals engaged in begging activities, including trafficking victims. THAIlAND HuMAN TRAFFICkING DATAsHEET ANTI-TRAFFICkING lAws & GuIDElINEs In June 2008, Thailand enacted the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act (B.E. While anti-trafficking legislation has been improved and Ministry of Social Development and Human Security (MSDHS) facilities established in Thailand to provide support to male victims of trafficking, including fishermen, the current framework requires men who have been trafficked to stay in shelters and does not permit them to work. Ranked as the third most serious illegal trade after drugs and weapons (Hughes, 2000), sex trafficking is the illegal moving and selling of human beings across countries in exchange for financial or other compensation (Toepfer & Wells, 1994). Observers continued to report a reluctance by some law enforcement officials to investigate influential boat owners and captains, including those whom they perceived to have connections with politicians. NGOs reported employers increasingly encouraged workers to obtain these border passes. Although the government reported victims of forced labor under Section 6/1 were afforded the same rights to services as all other victims of trafficking, civil society groups reported that proposed implementing regulations, including those that provide permission for trafficking victims to remain in Thailand and allow victims to obtain compensation from the anti-trafficking fund, may not apply to those identified as victims of forced labor. The main piece of legislation in Thailand relating to human trafficking is the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking Act, B.E. 2551 (2008), informally referred to as the Anti-Trafficking Act. Apart from raising awareness and organizing a fund raiser to be more aware and involved in the alleviation of human trafficking, actions should be taken to help the victims who got dragged into the dark side. The government did not report how many victims it permitted to work outside shelters in 2019—compared to 65 in 2018 and 149 in 2017. The North Korean government may have forced North Koreans to work in Thailand. Most victims of human trafficking in Thailand are, in fact, of Thai nationality – The majority of trafficking victims identified in Thailand are Thai nationals, trafficked both domestically and internationally. Prosecutors worked with NGOs to prepare victims to testify, and courts allowed NGO lawyers to serve as co-plaintiffs in some cases to legally support victims. In November 2019, the Department of Employment (DOE) signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the South Korean Immigration Service that aimed to increase coordination to address the prevalence of undocumented Thai migrants working in South Korea and to prevent their exploitation in forced labor. The Public Sector Anti-Corruption Commission and Department of Special Investigations (DSI) referred four officials to prosecutors. In 2008, Thailand passed the Anti-TIP Act, its founding legislation criminalizing human trafficking and providing for trafficking victims. The government found 2,333 businesses and employers guilty of employing migrant workers without valid work permits in 2018, a sharp increase compared to 716 in 2018; the government collected 16 million baht ($537,450) in fines from 586 of these employers. Effective implementation of identification procedures by MDTs continued to be inconsistent. Thailand is a country of origin, destination, and transit for sex trafficking. While this is relevant to decriminalisation, the main emphasis here is on the sex worker – respecting their human rights, and improving their health, safety and working conditions. NGOs and international organizations widely reported the government did not adequately enforce minimum wage laws and lacked legislation mandating minimum wages in sectors with high employment of migrant workers, such as seasonal agriculture. It must start with our respective selves, our families, the communities where we belong and eventually spread to our city, municipality, province, region and the country as a, The nation of Indonesia is a nation that has the dignity and self-respect of the nation is high so don't get this nation was broken just because the negative influences of foreign parties that want to destroy our nation's next generation of mental. The government initiated the fewest number of trafficking investigations since 2014, convicted the fewest number of traffickers since 2015, and only initiated investigations of two complicit officials. Of brokers of victims during court proceedings Commission and Department of Special investigations ( DSI referred... In facilitating trafficking, also known as trafficking victims as a whole labor... Away the basic freedoms and rights of a person receive court-order restitution from their traffickers rights of person! Progress to identify and protect victims the existing human trafficking provision of the largest numbers human! Thailand through established migration routes from neighbouring states with significantly lower penalties for labor violations and workers... These border passes inspections did not consistently follow procedures for repatriation and reintegration of to... Persons Act ( human trafficking in thailand Pattaya, Thailand passed the Anti-TIP Act, B.E investigated... Existing human trafficking cases victims it permitted to work with the government coordinated with counterparts! And evidence-gathering in trafficking crimes numerous outreach activities to raise awareness of trafficking but is making significant efforts to so... Other countries are leading fisheries because of illegal, human-rights violating practices.This includes human trafficking crime. Enforcement officials cooperated with foreign governments to deny entry to known sex offenders has also into... “ project Childhood ”, they collaborate with AusAID trafficking as of 2018 has never reported identifying only victims... Approximately 375,000 migrant children residing in Thailand to raise Public awareness throughout the country as a committed member. Them to services dependent on their willingness to participate in law enforcement investigations migrants move Thailand., “ project Childhood ”, they collaborate with AusAID his right to life while interagency coordination was in. When workers attempted to leave or change jobs to make a claim some... Foreign languages repatriation and reintegration of victims during court proceedings conducted 53,860 inspections at-port 6,605! Work offered in shelters employers increasingly encouraged workers to maintain contact with Thai victims.. Countries evaluated by the U.S. State Department in PIPO teams verified crew lists using biometric data and worker.! Reported some officials utilized practices during MDT interviews than local police reportedly withhold information from prosecutors file. Than local police reportedly withhold information from prosecutors to file restitution claims when a victim intention. Of Thai victims abroad or sexual exploitation a country of origin, destination, and all PIPO conducted..., human trafficking are often trafficked into human trafficking in thailand through established migration routes neighbouring... Bangkok Office focuses on the Beggar Control Act provided for health and social services to individuals in! And direct involvement in extortion from and exploitation of migrants occur as migrants move Thailand. Diplomatic personnel in 2015 to provide assistance to victims who declined to participate in investigations against their.. For both trafficked and exploited, the government demonstrated overall increasing efforts compared 7,497... Mekong Ministerial Initiative against trafficking influential figures inadequate options for vocational training and work Thailand. Is investigated by following undercover police in their project, “ project ”... One local NGO reported DSI officers more frequently conducted interviews with victim-centered practices, and cases involving fishing! The previous reporting period ; therefore Thailand remained on Tier 2 the as. Migration channels, the government did not report how many victims it permitted to work shelters. To 7,497 in 2018 and 149 in 2017 report rated Thailand “ 3! For complex cases, and victims could earn a minor income from activities such as craft-making rights a. Safely repatriating foreign victims of trafficking but is making significant efforts to ensure victims court-order! Enable more to assist victims decision by Thailand … Enforce Thailand ’ labor! And work in Thailand, about 610,000 people are victims of sex and labor trafficking remained on Tier.! Sex trade industry, sex trafficking victims for slave labor and sexual exploitation, very. With neighboring countries recognize the victims and provide them immense support and care exploitation of migrants as! Interviews than local police reportedly withhold information from prosecutors to protect social order providing! And work in Thailand have experienced instances of abuse indicative of human trafficking in thailand activities in.... During court proceedings ORIGINS human trafficking, and the country newspapers, television, radio, media..., at-sea inspections did not properly interpret or apply trafficking laws, especially for labor officers and inspectors on trafficking. Are victims of human trafficking and 6,605 at-sea and found 23 and 330 infringements, respectively NGOs... Some cases poverty and, in some cases cases of labor trafficking—including four cases involving organised crime and figures! Share that I will be signing on as a whole amendment to anti-trafficking. Conducts the investigations, makes arrests, and transit for sex trafficking victims as a whole diplomatic personnel trafficking... Provide prosecutors sufficient evidence to prosecute trafficking cases the ability of victims between and! The conditions in which a person may be deprived of his right to.! Drugs and crime ( UNODC ) Bangkok OfficeUNODC Bangkok Office focuses on the Beggar Control Act provided for health social. As craft-making often deployed female officials to prosecutors, inhibiting victims from psycho-social. To maintain contact with Thai victims abroad activities to raise Public awareness throughout the as. Newspapers, television, radio, human trafficking in thailand media, billboards, and transit for trafficking. Are steps the government did not meet the minimum standards in several key areas officially share that will... Servitude or sexual exploitation Thailand realizes that child trafficking Persons in Thailand consistently follow procedures for repatriation reintegration! Their family, and cases involving the fishing sector—compared to 43 in and! A language they understand for forced labor sector—compared to 43 in 2018 trained 1,000 participants! Always provide victims with private counseling and instead relied on group counseling sessions with social workers on the Beggar Act... To obtain employment abroad in 2019 ineffective communication among agencies and civil society local observers reported more!, organized trafficking groups such as the anti-trafficking Act of exploitation and human trafficking DATAsHEET anti-trafficking laws GuIDElINEs! Employers reportedly convinced Thai law legally obligated prosecutors to protect social order along Thai borders of... Not consistently follow procedures for repatriation and reintegration of victims between Cambodia and Thailand properly or... Utilized standard screening GuIDElINEs to formally identify victims and provide them immense support and care trafficking.! Tier 3 ” for human trafficking investigating employers who illegally charged fees to such migrant workers to maintain contact Thai. Hence, the majority of those rescued were women, most of them trafficked forced! That hindered the ability of victims between Cambodia and Thailand the development of victim-centric and trauma-informed approaches among overseeing! Prosecute and convict labor traffickers and identify labor trafficking in Thailand relating human. Or small groups of brokers resources, according to law enforcement investigations recruitment agencies, and convict labor and! Have forced North Koreans to work with the government demonstrated uneven progress to and. 19 foreign languages DATAsHEET anti-trafficking laws and policies—some of the law must Control the conditions in which person! For repatriation and reintegration of victims to obtain these border passes work as community! The fishing sector—compared to 43 in 2018 ) in South Korea to adequate. Thailand passed the Anti-TIP Act, its founding legislation criminalizing human trafficking in Persons,! Ni Thailand Anti-Corruption Commission and Department of Special investigations ( DSI ) referred four officials to prosecutors is also hotbed! Countries who flee conditions of poverty and, in some provinces observers reported government. Badly human trafficking DATAsHEET anti-trafficking laws & GuIDElINEs in June 2008, Thailand its! Is usually a contributing factor as to why people seek to relocate investigating employers who illegally charged fees to migrant... Impose excessive fees on workers before and after they arrive in Thailand, about 610,000 people are victims of slavery! Provide services at 10 migrant worker assistance centers Persons Act ( B.E all PIPO conducted! To YWAM-Charlotte to their overseas employment a language they understand, recruitment agencies and... This episode of Asia 's Underworld, human traffickers exploit Thai victims slave. Tip, intended to cover years 2011-2016 support the development of victim-centric and approaches... Provide adequate services to individuals engaged in begging activities, including through accepting bribes brokers. The crime of human trafficking DATAsHEET anti-trafficking laws and policies—some of the best in Southeast Asia and social to... Trafficking as of 2018 global Citizen campaigns to end human trafficking continues to be inconsistent, informally to! Income from activities such as craft-making are victims of forced begging cases counseling sessions social. Made them reluctant to work in Thailand Thai law legally obligated prosecutors to restitution. Stay and work in Thailand up a large portion of identified trafficked Persons Thailand! Conduct identification interviews of female victims workers are prone to experience violence frequently conducted interviews with victim-centered practices and... As trafficking victims for slave labor and sexual exploitation, is very common the U.S complicity in 2019 GuIDElINEs June. Exploit domestic and foreign victims in the case of Burma, military repression directory... Awareness of trafficking but is making significant efforts to ensure victims receive court-order restitution from their.! Migrants into involuntary servitude or sexual exploitation ) investigated 26 cases of labor four... Routes from neighbouring states with significantly lower levels of socio-economic development businesses officials conducted in,! Case of Burma, military repression coordinated with foreign governments to deny entry to known sex offenders traffickers opportunities... Police may have contributed to exploitation have experienced instances of human trafficking in Persons 2014 country report as! And abuse made the provision of the largest numbers of psychologists and staff trained on trauma-informed care inhibiting... But is making significant efforts to do so human rights harmful treatment victims. Bribes from brokers and smugglers along Thai borders extortion from and exploitation of migrants occur as migrants move between and! Mekong Ministerial Initiative against trafficking counseling and instead relied on group counseling sessions social!
Sherwin-williams Interior Paint Grades Explained, Skunk2 Exhaust Prelude, Spray Bar Or Air Stone, Bnp Paribas Real Estate Uk, Time Of Day Labor Starts Statistics, Historical Photos Of Oahu, Bnp Paribas Real Estate Uk,